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And then there were the 60 centurions. The centurions had their own rankings, the titles of which are probably based on the organisation of the manipular army. For the 2ndth cohorts of a legion, the centurions were ranked, highest to lowest: pilus prior , princeps prior , hastatus prior , pilus posterior , princeps posterior , and the hastatus posterior. For the first cohort, there were five centurions, called the primi ordines , and they were ranked again, highest to lowest , primus pilus , princeps prior , hastatus prior , princeps posterior , and hastatus posterior.

Our main sources on Roman military equipment come from artistic depictions, military documents, other literature , and surviving archaeological artefacts.

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The Imperial period presents us with the largest amount of surviving material. The standard weapons of the Roman imperial army were quite similar to those used in the Republic. The pilum was a heavy spear that was thrown before hand-to-hand combat. Caesar , Gallic War , 1. The Republican gladius hispaniensis Spanish sword was the other standard weapon of the Roman infantry and was worn on the right hip, being designed for stabbing and thrusting.

However, it could also cut, having sharp edges. Livy The Imperial sword is referred to as the Mainz-type sword after the location where examples have been found and is similar. The sword would have been mainly used for stabbing. The Mainz-type then developed into the Pompeii type examples found at Pompeii and Herculaneum , which had a shorter tip and which may have made it easier to use as a cutting weapon, as well as a stabbing weapon.

Both of these swords would have been carried on the right side of the body. Polybius gives a comprehensive overview of the Republic scutum shield 6. Vegetius 2. However, there does not seem to be any non-contentious material to support Vegetius, and considering his later date, he may be transferring contemporary practises to earlier times. Polybius 6.

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There were three main types of armour employed by the Imperial army; the lorica hamate , iron mail tunics; scale armour, which was made up of metal scales woven onto a cloth base; and the well-known lorica segmentata , which consisted of strips of iron joined by leather straps. The Monterfortino style helmet named after the grave of Montefortino in Ancona where a number of examples were found was the standard helmet of the 2nd century BCE.

Roman siege weapons tended to be variations or copies of Hellenistic versions; they came in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions. Most of them are described by Vitruvius X. There were catapults and ballistae both variations of stone throwers ; the smaller Scorpiones , similar in shape if not design to ballistae which was an artillery piece, firing bolts; further to this the Romans would employ battering rams and siege towers. Vitruvius passes over the more obvious-to-construct siege ladders.

Josephus, The Jewish War 3. However, siege weapons were also sometimes but rarely deployed in open warfare : Tacitus, Histories 3. It is important to remember what the army would be doing when not fighting in the field; mostly it was training. Route marches might take place three times a month and sometimes manoeuvres would be practised in the field. However, there were civilian duties too. Infrastructures were improved with bridge and road building.

Hospitals had to be manned, kilns worked, fuel fetched, and bread baked, to name just a few camp activities. The Vindolanda writing tablets act as a brilliant insight into life at a Roman camp and contain personal letters and camp accounts. Likewise, Josephus, Jewish War , 3. However, the whole legion need not be based in camp at the same time. Vindolanda Inventory No. Of the maniples, the standard formation of the maniples was triplex acies , with troops drawn up three lines deep, the hastati at the front, the principes in the middle, and the triarii at the back.

Each soldier would take up a space around 6 foot square, enabling him to throw his pilum and effectively wield his sword Pol.

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  6. The multiple maniples were often spaced a distance equal to their own width away from the next maniple, in a staggered chess board like formation, which has been termed quincunx. Once battles had started it was often up to junior commanders, rather than the general himself, to oversee the motivation of the troops; Plutarch records a unique situation:. The Romans, when they attacked the Macedonian phalanx, were unable to force a passage, and Salvius, the commander of the Pelignians, snatched the standard of his company and hurled it in among the enemy. Then the Pelignians, since among the Italians it is an unnatural and flagrant thing to abandon a standard, rushed on towards the place where it was, and dreadful losses were inflicted and suffered on both sides.

    The Romans also developed many military tactics and methods which would be used for centuries to come, as well as tactics unique to a given situation. When the cavalry squadrons arrived… he withdrew his line of battle. The cavalry pursued him closely, fell into the ditches, and in this way were defeated. There were also formations against cavalry, Cassius Dio Roman History, This semi-legendary battle took place at Lake Regillius between Tusculum and Rome and happened at the very beginning of the Roman Republic.

    It was fought between Rome and the Latins. The Romans were led by the Dictator Postumius.

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    After much uncertainty on the battlefield, there were three measures which Postumius had to put in place to ensure his victory. Firstly, he ordered his own cohort to treat any fleeing Romans as they would the enemy in order to rally them; then he had to order the cavalry to fight on foot since the infantry were so exhausted; thirdly he provided further incentive to his troops by promising rewards to those who entered the enemy camp first and second.

    This resulted in such a rush of Roman troops that Tarquinius and the Latins fled the field of battle, and Postumius returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph. Livy, Ab Urbe Condita , 2. Zama was the last battle in the Second Punic War and ended 17 years of war between the two states of Rome and Carthage. The Roman legionaries and Italian cavalry with a supporting body of Numidian cavalry were led by Publius Cornelius Scipio.

    The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, who fielded an army of mercenaries, local citizens, veterans from his battles in Italy, and war elephants. The Roman victory saw an end to Carthaginian resistance, with the Carthaginian senate pressing for peace again. The Romans granted peace, but only at a high price for Carthage. Livy, Ab Urbe Condita , Both of these battles saw incredibly fierce fighting.

    At Lake Trasimene the Romans had been ambushed by Hannibal, and this led to such fierce fighting:. At the battle of Teutoburg Forest three legions were ambushed and slaughtered by a gathering of Germanic tribes, commanded by Arminius , chief of the Cherusci. The Romans were led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. Tacitus Annals ,1.

    Upon receiving intelligence of this disaster, he gave orders for keeping a strict watch over the city , to prevent any public disturbance, and prolonged the appointments of the prefects in the provinces, that the allies might be kept in order by experience of persons to whom they were used. He made a vow to celebrate the great games in honour of Jupiter , Optimus, Maximus, "if he would be pleased to restore the state to more prosperous circumstances.

    In short, we are informed that he was in such consternation at this event, that he let the hair of his head and beard grow for several months, and sometimes knocked his head against the door-post, crying out, " Varus! Give me back my legions! For the best part of half a millennium, the Roman army acted as the long arm of Roman imperialism over an area of land that encompassed the lands touched and influenced by the Mediterranean. It united Italy, divided Roman allegiances, acting both as the State's enforcer and the enforcer of individuals of power; it was able to subdue German tribes, Carthaginians, Greeks, Macedonians, and many other peoples.

    It was a force to be reckoned with, and it still is because to understand how the Roman army operated is no easy task, and this definition has only brushed the topsoil off the vast wealth of details on the Roman army that has been buried in time. Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication. We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Become a Member. Lloyd, J. Roman Army.

    Encyclopedia of Assassinations: More Than 400 Infamous Attacks That Changed the Course of History

    Ancient History Encyclopedia. Lloyd, James. Last modified April 30, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 30 Apr This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Overview The Roman army, arguably one of the longest surviving and most effective fighting forces in military history, has a rather obscure beginning. Remove Ads Advertisement. Bibliography Brian Campbell. Greek and Roman Military Writers.

    Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. This work explores the stories surrounding more than assassinations and other attempts at politically motivated violence. Its entries detail well-known attacks, attempts, and plots against political figures. Get A Copy. Published March 1st by Facts on File first published February More Details Original Title. Other Editions 6. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Encyclopedia Of Assassinations , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Encyclopedia Of Assassinations.

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    Nice collection , brief overviews mostly. No revelations , or new info. David rated it liked it Sep 10, Karen rated it really liked it Jan 04, Mark Mirabello rated it really liked it Apr 28, Joan Sullivan rated it it was amazing Oct 13, Alexis rated it liked it Oct 25, J-sin rated it liked it Jul 01, Adam Koestline rated it really liked it Dec 28, Cassndra Ness rated it really liked it Nov 12, Chrissie Russell rated it really liked it Jan 16, Paige Kinnamon rated it really liked it Jun 14, Youp rated it liked it Sep 05, Apr 10, Jason R.

    Ok book to read I gave this book two stars because it repeats the same stories all the time and I did not need to know about attempted assassination of people. It should of been organized better by countries than by alphabetical order. Lisa rated it did not like it Sep 17, John Finn rated it did not like it May 30, Charles Tiede rated it liked it Dec 12, Dave Currie rated it really liked it Oct 18, Marty rated it liked it Mar 02, Bethany Gosewehr rated it it was ok Nov 25, William Hackman rated it really liked it Jul 01,