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The excess of energy can induce the production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals Powles, which break the DNA, destroy the function of proteins, and are responsible for peroxidation of lipids, thus causing damage to the plant metabolism and decreasing the rate of photosynthesis and growth. Most CO 2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM plant. This work was done as part of the project "Ecophysiology vanilla cultivation Vanilla planifolia Andr. Anderson JM and Aro E. Grana stacking and protection of photosystem II in thylakoid membranes of higher plant leaves under sustained high irradiance: an hypothesis.

Photosynthesis Research 41 2 : Photoregulation of the composition, function, and structure of thylakoid membranes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 37 1 : Vanilla cultivation: A profitable agri-based enterprise. Kerala Calling 1: Barrow SR and Cockburn W.

I. The importance of plant carbon metabolism for climate change

Effects of light quantity and quality on the decarboxylation of malic acid in crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis. Plant physiology 69 3 : Vanilla: agriculture and curing techniques.

A photographic handbook for vanilla farmers. Venui Vanilla Co. Santo, Vanuatu. Biodiversity and preservation of vanilla: present state of knowledge. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55 4 : Crassulacean acid metabolism. A plastic photosynthetic adaptation to arid environments. Plant Physiology 4 : Crassulacean acid metabolism: plastic, fantastic. Journal of Experimental Botany 53 : Vanilla Production in Australia. Handbook of vanilla science and technology. Vanilla planifolia: history, botany and culture in Reunion Island.

Photosynthetic Productivity: Can Plants do Better?

Agronomie 19 8 : Griffiths H. Carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms and the evolution of CAM in vascular epiphytes. Vascular plants as epiphytes. Springer Berlin- Heidelberg, GE. Bromeliaceae to variations in light and water supply. Journal of Plant Physiology 6 : Mexican Vanilla Production. In: Havkin-Frenkel D. Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology. Holdridge LR. Bourbon vanilla: natural flavour with a future. Chronica Horticulturae 48 2 : Lichtenthaler H and Wellburn AR. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents.


Biochemical Society Transactions 11 5 : Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology Ecophysiology of crassulacean acid metabolism CAM.

Annals of Botany 93 6 : Agriculture and the new challenges for photosynthesis research. New Phytologist 3 : Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation, nocturnal acid accumulation, and CO2 uptake for a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Plant physiology 71 1 : In C4 plant biology.

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Academic Press, San Diego, California; — In Photosynthesis: Physiology and metabolism. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; — Annu Rev Ecol Syst , — Popul Dev Rev , — Friso G, Majeran W, Huang MS, Sun Q, van Wijk KJ: Reconstruction of metabolic pathways, protein expression, and homeostasis machineries across maize bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts: large-scale quantitive proteomics using the first maize genome assembly.

Plant Physiol , — Curr Opin Plant Biol , — J Exp Bot , — Nat Biotechnol , — Planta , — Nat Biotechnol , 76— Leegood RC: Roles of the bundle sheath cells in leaves of C3 plants. Plant J , 6: — In Photosynthesis: physiology and metabolism. Am J Bot , — Plant Cell , 1: 3— Nikolopoulos D, Liakopoulos G, Drossopoulos I, Karabourniotis G: The relationship between anatomy and photosynthetic performance of heterobaric leaves. Plant Cell Physiol , — Plant Physiol , 49— Asian J Cell Biol , 7: 13— Sage RF: The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytol , — Annu Rev Plant Biol , 19— Sharpe RM, Offermann S: One decade after the discovery of single-cell C4 species in terrestrial plants: what did we learn about the minimal requirement of C4 photosynthesis?

Photosynth Res Development , — Ueno O: Structural and biochemical characterization of the C3-C4 intermediate Brassica gravinae and relatives, with particular reference to cellular distribution of Rubisco. Planta a, — Plant J b, — Plant J , — Yoshimura Y, Kubota F, Ueno O: Structural and biochemical bases of photorespiration in C4 plants: quantification of organelles and glycine decarboxylase.

Download references. Correspondence to Shanta Karki. SK conceptualized the study and prepared the manuscript. GR designed experiment for gas exchange and leaf anatomy, analyzed data and contributed in preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Reprints and Permissions. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Abstract To boost food production for a rapidly growing global population, crop yields must significantly increase. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Reallocation of N is then, for instance, available to upregulate respiratory metabolism in response to growth at elevated [CO 2 ] [ 56 ].

It is therefore remarkable that ca. The relatively large increase in CO 2 assimilation at elevated [CO 2 ] was associated with a significant decrease in leaf N per unit mass Figure 5. Thus for a small increase in protein, transformants had a significantly greater increases in nitrogen use efficiency than WT at elevated [CO 2 ]. The results are consistent with numerous other FACE studies showing that [CO 2 ] will stimulate growth in spite of photosynthetic acclimation and that growth at elevated [CO 2 ] increases nitrogen use efficiency [reviewed in [ 57 ]].

Transformants and WT plants grown in elevated [CO 2 ] tended to have higher respiration in the light R d than plants in ambient [CO 2 ] plots. Leaves of plants grown under elevated [CO 2 ] accumulate larger concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates i. Recently, Leakey et al. We speculate that the reportedly greater sucrose and starch accumulation in transformants [ 16 ] stimulates additional acclimation of respiration to elevated [CO 2 ] and may therefore also diminish the benefit of overexpressing SBPase.

Alternatively, higher R d in transformants may be a result of the unregulated overexpression of the enzyme. Either way, higher R d , the requirement for high light, and unmeasured natural stresses all would contribute to a lower realized benefit to overexpressing SBPase in the field. The data presented in this paper have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants with increased SBPase have the potential for greater stimulation of photosynthesis and biomass production relative to wild type tobacco when grown at elevated [CO 2 ].

Differences between theoretical and realized increases in carbon assimilation are to be expected as studies of PCR cycle antisense plants have demonstrated that the relative importance of any one PCR cycle enzyme is not fixed and will vary according to environmental and developmental conditions [[ 20 ], this study,[ 59 ]].

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Nevertheless, our findings are consistent with the notion that elevating [CO 2 ] increases the metabolic control of RuBP-regeneration and decreases the control exerted by Rubisco at light saturation [ 6 , 7 ]. Though smaller than theoretically predicted, the increases in photosynthetic stimulation at elevated [CO 2 ] demonstrated here are indicative that C 3 crop plants can be engineered to meet a rapidly changing environment. Sharkey TD: O2 insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants -it's occurence and a possible explanation.

Plant Physiology. Functional Plant Biology. Nature Geoscience. Annual Review of Plant Biology. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. Plant Cell and Environment. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. Raines CA: The Calvin cycle revisited. Photosynthesis Research. Zhu XG, de Sturler E, Long SP: Optimizing the distribution of resources between enzymes of carbon metabolism can dramatically increase photosynthetic rate: A numerical simulation using an evolutionary algorithm.

Artificial photosynthesis - Wikipedia

Journal of Experimental Botany. Makino A, Sage RF: Temperature response of photosynthesis in transgenic rice transformed with 'sense' or 'antisense' rbcS. Plant and Cell Physiology. A computational analysis extrapolating from kinetic properties to canopy photosynthesis. In PhotosynthesisPhysiology and Metabolism. Volume 9. Dordrecht: Kluwer; Raines CA: Transgenic approaches to manipulate the environmental responses of the C 3 carbon fixation cycle. In Photosynthesis: Physiology and Metabolism. Boston: Kluwer AcademicPublishers; Plant Cell Reports.

Global Change Biology. New Phytologist. Long SP, Bernacchi CJ: Gas exchange measurements, what can they tell us about the underlying limitations to photosynthesis? Procedures and sources of error. Baker NR: Chlorophyll fluorescence: A probe of photosynthesis in vivo. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta.

In Design and Analysis ofEcological Experiments. New York:Oxford University Press; New York: W. Freeman; , A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO 2. Arthropod-Plant Interactions. Lau JA, Tiffin P: Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations indirectly affect plant fitness by altering plant tolerance to herbivory. Olcer H, Lloyd JC, Raines CA: Photosynthetic capacity is differentially affected by reductions in sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase activity during leaf development in transgenic tobacco plants.

Nature Biotechnology. Stitt M, Schulze D: Does Rubisco control the rate of photosynthesis and plant growth: an exercise in molecular ecophysiology. Download references. We thank Andrew Leakey for insightful discussion. We also thank Elie Schwartz for technical help in the lab. Correspondence to Donald R Ort. DR Conceived and designed the experiment, acquired and analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. AL aided in data acquisition and analysis, revised the paper, and gave final approval of the manuscript.

MK aided in data acquisition, data analysis and gave final approval of the manuscript. CR provided the transformants, provided technical support, revised the paper, and gave final approval of the manuscript. SL and DO conceived and aided in the design of the experiment, revised the manuscript, and gave final approval of the manuscript.

Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C 3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP V c,max , or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport J.

Photosynthesis V2

Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type WT tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO 2 ] ppm under fully open air fumigation. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C 3 crops grown at [CO 2 ] expected by the middle of the 21st century.

Background Biochemical models of C 3 photosynthesis A predict that A is limited by the slowest of three processes: the maximum carboxylation capacity of the enzyme Rubisco V c,max , the regeneration of Ribulosephosphate RuBP via whole chain electron transport J or J max , or the inorganic phosphate release from the utilization of triose phosphates TPU or Pi limited [ 1 , 2 ]. Leaf protein and western blotting Prior to planting, leaf discs were collected from cuttings and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen to confirm that sense plants had greater SBPase content than WT.