Manual Physical Properties of Foods: Novel Measurement Techniques and Applications

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The argon adsorption data clearly reveal the two different relative pressure regions of micro- and mesopore filling of hierarchical zeolites. In contrast, the two filling regions overlap upon adsorption of water due to the hydrophobic nature of the ZSM-5 micropores and the much more hydrophilic nature of the mesopores. Thus, further insights into the surface and structural properties of the pores in hierarchical zeolites prepared by desilication can be gained.

Based on our results, we put forward a hydrophilicity index capable of identifying differences in surface chemistry between distinct porous materials, and also between the micro- and mesopores present within hierarchically structured nanoporous materials. Jing-hua, W. Next,its structure and morphology are characterized by using N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms and by means of TEM so as to reveal the influence of the titanium content in the titanium-doped silica gel on the silica gel structure. Then,the water vapor adsorption and regeneration properties of the adsorbent SiO2-TiO2 are investigated by using a dynamic water vapor sorption analyzer DVSA ,and the desorption activation energy of water molecules on absorbent was also estimated by a temperature programmed desorption TPD test.

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Finally,the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill FHH model is used to analyze the surface roughness and pore size distribution of the adsorbent. Moira A. These are in agreement with independently assigned dates. We define precisely the mass components of the ceramic material before, during and after dehydroxylation.

These include the masses of three types of water present in the sample: capillary water, weakly chemisorbed molecular water and chemically combined RHX water. We describe the main steps of the RHX dating process: sample preparation, drying, conditioning, reheating and measurement of RHX mass gain. We propose a statistical criterion for isolating the RHX component of the measured mass gain data after reheating and demonstrate how to calculate the RHX age.

An effective lifetime temperature ELT is defined, and we show how this is related to the temperature history of a sample. Our results suggest that RHX has the potential to be a reliable and technically straightforward method of dating archaeological pottery, thus filling a long-standing gap in dating methods. Arana, I. Physical properties of foods: novel measurement techniques and applications. CRC Press.

Movie of thin film physical properties measurement instruments

In this chapter new methods to characterize cereals and their products are described in order to determine the effects of manufacturing processes and storage conditions on the thermal, mechanical, and structural properties of grains, cereal flours, and their products. The methods to determine physical properties in cereals have been classified in three different cases depending on raw matter state: before, during, and after production; and the current techniques in image analysis, light and electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy used to analyze the microstructure of cereal products.

This chapter also discusses the methods used to optimize processing parameters and formulations to produce end products with desirable sensory and textural properties, the shelf life of cereal products, and the relationships between the sensory and physical characteristics of cereal foods. Klank, D.

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Untersuchungen zur Porenbildung von Feststoffen. Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 84 3 , The results of the gas sorption experiments performed on the different materials will be discussed in detail, especially when sorption phenomena like kinetic restricted diffusion, sorption hysteresis and materials where the pore system is undergoing a structural deformation with time can be observed. Clay-supported graphene materials: application to hydrogen storage. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15 42 , The impregnation of the clay substrates by caramel in aqueous media followed by a thermal treatment in absence of oxygen of these clay-caramel intermediates gives rise to graphene-like materials, which remain strongly bound to the silicate support.

These carbon-clay nanocomposites can act as adsorbents for hydrogen storage, achieving, at K and 20 MPa, over 0. The very high isosteric heat for hydrogen sorption determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures Combining nitrogen, argon, and water adsorption for advanced characterization of ordered mesoporous carbons CMKs and periodic mesoporous organosilicas PMOs. Langmuir, 29 48 , These data reveal how the interplay between confined geometry effects and the strength of the adsorption forces influence the adsorption, wetting, and phase behavior of pore fluids.

Further, our results indicate that water adsorption is quite sensitive to both small changes in pore structure and surface chemistry, showing the potential of water adsorption as a powerful complementary tool for the characterization of nanoporous solids. Propst, C. Patent Application No.

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The present invention is useful in the manufacture of sustained and modified release active pharmaceutical ingredient API microspheres, as a free flowing excipient for mini-tablets and in the manufacture of API dispersions. David, P. Abstract: Bionanocomposites represent an emerging group of nano-structured hybrid materials. They are formed by the combination of natural polymers and inorganic solids and show at least one dimension on the nanometer scale. These hybrid materials retain the structural and functional properties of nano-structured materials. Meanwhile, the presence of biopolymer can reduce the public health and environmental risks of nano-sized materials.

Properties inherent to the biopolymers, notably, biocompatibility and biodegradability, open new prospects for these hybrid materials particularly in regenerative medicine and in environmental engineering Darder et al. Fabrication of large-sized bionanocomposites, rather than nano-sized particles, can prevent possible harmful nanoparticle NP intake by humans and other living things. Synergistic assembling of biopolymers with inorganic nano-sized solids leads to multifunctional bionanocomposites which can be synthesized and applied in several areas for designed purposes.

Tazibet, S. The influence of the cooling down step in the heat treatment on the stability of activated carbons hydrophobicity. Adsorption, 20 4 , The only difference between the treatments of the two carbons is the cooling down step. After these treatments, the two carbons were hydrophobic and presented similar adsorption properties and an identical behavior toward water and cyclohexane uptakes. After being stored in ambient conditions for 20 months, the stability of oxygen functional groups is studied.

It is found that the creation of oxygen groups, especially carboxylic acids, which are very attractive to water molecules, depends on the cooling down step. This is confirmed by both water isotherms and cyclohexane breakthrough measurements. Cyclohexane breakthrough times show that one of the heat treated carbons does not preserve its hydrophobic character compared to the other carbon, which presents a breakthrough time value close to that obtained before the storage.

Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2 5 , This work introduces novel bionanocomposites based on the assembly of sacran to sepiolite, a fibrous hydrated magnesium silicate, reporting some of their special features. Sacran—sepiolite films show tensile moduli about twice that of neat sacran films, and improved resistance and integrity in aqueous solutions. These materials can act as adsorbents of lanthanide ions, profiting from the well-known adsorption properties of sepiolite and the ability of sacran to complex rare earth and heavy metal ions.

Zhao, G. Synthesis of hydrophobic mesoporous material MFS and its adsorption properties of water vapor. Journal of Spectroscopy, The adsorption properties of water vapor on the synthesized MFS are also investigated by using gravimetric method. The amount of water vapor on the MFS is about 0. The isosteric adsorption heat of water on the MFS is gradually about It may be a kind of good candidate for adsorption of large molecule and catalyst carrier with high moisture resistance.

Zhao, Z. Competitive adsorption and selectivity of benzene and water vapor on the microporous metal organic frameworks HKUST The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of pure component as well as binary mixtures of benzene and water vapor were systematically investigated on the HKUST Their binary adsorption selectivity and permeation selectivity are predicted via the IAST method.

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Benzene exhibited much higher isosteric heat and desorption activation energy than water vapor, indicating a stronger interaction with the HKUST Breakthrough curves of benzene showed a remaining capacity of about Thus, the HKUST-1 is more selective or preferential adsorption for benzene molecules in comparison to water molecules at high temperature and low pressure. Also, it shows the advantage of kinetic separation for VOCs and water vapor.

Moinester, M. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 98 3 , Wilson, Hall et al. RHX dating proceeds by measuring the mass of chemically combined water in the ceramics in the form of OH hydroxyls, and the mass gain rate at the Effective Lifetime Temperature ELT that the ceramics experienced over its lifetime.

To date, ELT determinations have been based on estimates of the ceramic's lifetime temperature history; taking into account weather and climate data and the depth at which the artifact was found. The uncertainty in determining the ELT can be a major component of the overall dating uncertainty. Here, we propose an alternative method which relies minimally on weather and climate data, and provides more precise determinations of the ELT and the ceramic age.

The proposed method SAS: Same Age Samples involves a minimum of four measurements of the RHX mass gain rate constant for two ceramic samples of the same age at two temperatures. The corresponding percent age error is then 1. Fried, D. Influence of the hydrophilic—hydrophobic contrast of porous surfaces on the enzymatic performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry B,3 11 , Mentioned in? References in classic literature? Lloyd warmed to the talk in his nervous, jerky fashion, and was soon interrogating the physical properties and possibilities of invisibility. View in context.

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The Sarlink Series, said to be one of the most widely used families of TPV products, ranges in hardness from 45 durometer A to 47 durometer D, and spans the full spectrum of physical properties required in the market. Thermoplastic vulcanizates. A novel approach for analyzing the physical properties of colloidal dispersions, Spheryx Inc.

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